Research on male victims of domestic violence
In this introductory chapter we present the ambitions, objectives and structure of this book. We define what violence in intimate relationships is and offer some insight into the contemporary theoretical debates on violence in intimate relationships, as set out by sociologist Michael P. It is a common assumption that men are only exposed to violence in the public space, while women are exposed to violence in intimate relationships. Such violence generally takes place in public spaces.
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Male victims of domestic violence struggle to disclose abuse
In this introductory chapter we present the ambitions, objectives and structure of this book. We define what violence in intimate relationships is and offer some insight into the contemporary theoretical debates on violence in intimate relationships, as set out by sociologist Michael P.
It is a common assumption that men are only exposed to violence in the public space, while women are exposed to violence in intimate relationships.
Such violence generally takes place in public spaces. In the last few decades we have become increasingly aware of the violence inflicted on women and children behind closed doors, in our homes. It is the violence that takes place within intimate relationships which has been the main subject of research in Norway and internationally—which in a host of countries has, in part, prompted the provision of help and intervention.
Recent research in Norway, based on various quantitative studies in which both women and men have been asked the same questions, has led to an increasing focus on violence in families and other intimate relationships which also affects a large number of men Pape and Stefansen ; Haaland et al. Despite this, violence towards men in intimate relationships is a relatively unexplored field in the Nordic context.
In particular, research is severely lacking on the experiences of men who are the victims of violence in intimate relationships, and the help they might need. This book aims, in some small way, to fill this gap in our knowledge. In international research there are few narrative studies on male victims of partner violence Allen-Collinson a , b ; Corbally Much of this discussion is based on statistical analysis of domestic violence.
This book is dived into three sections: a summary of prevalence studies; a survey; and qualitative research interviews. The latter sub-study comprises the main body of this book and includes three separate interview studies. This book has two overarching objectives.
First, we want to give men themselves the greatest space possible to tell their stories. Many people will find it improbable, or hard to understand, that a man might be subjected to systematic and serious violence from a female partner. The idea that a woman may be the aggressor, rather than the caregiver, can be counter-intuitive and stands in opposition to social norms of femininity Richardson This book takes as its point of departure that violence and gender must be empirically investigated rather than assumed in studies of violence.
It has therefore been important for us to offer quite detailed descriptions of events and experiences of violence, not because the experiences of violence inflicted on men differ enormously from those of women who are similarly exposed, but because we are generally unused to this switch in gender.
Secondly, we will investigate the new empirical evidence about violence against men in intimate relationships, and look at ways in which this can bring greater nuance and a wider understanding to the more established theories of violence in intimate relationships.
What do prevalence studies from the Nordic countries tell us about the vulnerability of men, the characteristics of the violence, the relationships in which violence takes place, its consequences and the help available? How do men experience being subjected to violence in intimate relationships? Of those men who have sought and received help, what are their experiences?
Can new empirical research about men bring a more nuanced and wider understanding to the more established theories of violence in intimate relationships? The project comprises three sub-studies that aim to address these questions.
The first of these is a literature study of Nordic prevalence studies of violence against men in intimate relationships.
The second consists of a questionnaire about awareness among the Norwegian public about the help that is available, including crisis centres, family protection offices and centres against incest and sexual assault, and the level of awareness that these are also available to men.
The questionnaire further includes a survey of whether the male respondents who had been subject to violence in intimate relationships had sought help, and, if not, why this was the case. It is important to note that services offered in Norway for men experiencing violence in intimate relationships are relatively unusual. There are 19 centres for victims of incest which have, since their inception in the s, treated both men and women who have experienced sexual abuse within or outside the family.
There are also 40 crisis centres, which were originally traditional crisis centres for women, similar to those in various other countries, but which opened their doors to men in In the government introduced a new a gender-neutral law in relation to crisis centres, making it mandatory for local councils to offer services to men and women on an equal basis.
Since then, the proportion of men at crisis centres has steadily increased. In the third sub-study we interviewed 28 male victims about their experiences of violence within intimate relationships. Here our focus is on the kinds of relationship in which violence takes place and the consequences of that violence on these men, both now and in the past.
We also investigate the experiences of men who have received help. In particular, we have been concerned with the experiences they have with the family protection service, crisis centres and centres against incest and sexual assault. Based on the information gathered from these three sub-studies, we discuss how a greater understanding of violence against men in intimate relationships can help challenge and further develop established theories of violence in intimate relationships.
Finally, we offer recommendations for possible improvements to existing services offered to men exposed to violence in intimate relationships, including sexual abuse. The most concrete way to identify a violent act is to define various forms of violence.
Isdal suggests that the following forms of violence are the most relevant when researching violence in intimate relationships:. Physical violence: violence involving physical contact kicking, hitting, pulling, biting, etc. Psychological violence: verbal or similar violence that frightens and harms others threats, humiliation, controlling others, isolating others, etc. Latent violence: violence that works by virtue of its possibility.
Having experienced violence means that one knows that can happen again. The risk of further violence can control everything the victim does without any actively aggressive behaviour.
Material violence: violence against inanimate objects breaking objects, destroying things that matter to others, etc. Most books on violence in intimate relationships do not discuss sexual abuse. We have however chosen to include this, and have interviewed men about their experiences both as children and as adults.
This is because sexual violence against men is under-communicated, these men are often subject to multiple victimisation, and we wanted to throw light on the need of these men for help. Most sexual abuse of men is perpetrated by members of their families or others who are close, often in relationships of trust see Chap.
In this book, violence in intimate relationships is understood to mean violence or threats of violence within couples, families, including the wider family, friendships and other relationships of trust or dependence. Both Nordic and international studies on violence in intimate relationships have generally focused on the violence of men against women and children within the family.
Over the years a number of different terms have been used when referring to this violence in these studies: wife abuse , wife battering , family violence , domestic violence , gender-based abuse , intimate partner violence Dobash and Dobash Theories in this field have been largely based on the findings of clinical and epidemiological studies of women and children who have been abused, as well as population studies on partner violence.
The most groundbreaking theory of violence in intimate relationships since the s is to be found in sociologist Michael P. Such control strategies may include the use of emotional abuse, isolation, threats, humiliation, harassment and influencing the children to turn against the partner Johnson and Leone The socially defined gender roles lead to victimisation of women.
Wendt and Zannettino , p. Wendt and Zannettino use Johnson to assert that there are grounds to focus on male perpetrators and female victims.
And their book does in fact deal with female victims. Over the last ten years, however, there has been a growing recognition that men can also be subjected to serious and systematic violence, from both women and men.
Johnson has therefore focused on male perpetrators in his work. With respect to implications for the question of gender symmetry, these types of domestic violence differ dramatically. In heterosexual relationships, intimate terrorism is perpetrated almost exclusively by men, whereas violent resistance is found almost exclusively among women.
The other two types are gender symmetric. Straus, for example, works within another theoretical paradigm, claiming that the use of violence must be seen in the light of earlier experiences of violence through which perpetrators have learned to accept violence in childhood, either as victims or as witnesses to violence, and that this can explain the gender symmetry which is found in prevalence studies Straus Other, more individualising theories, such as social learning theory, have influenced programmes for perpetrators of violence with the aim of teaching perpetrators new non-violent strategies for dealing with family conflict see Scott Another form of violence that Johnson identifies, which is the most common form in intimate relationships, is situational couple violence.
This form of partner violence is not linked with a general pattern of or desire for general control and dominance; rather, these episodes of violence are a result of a situational conflict that may be triggered by everyday stress or discussion escalating into violence Johnson and Leone , p. Such violence is termed milder and is believed to have less serious consequences for the individual than the violence defined as intimate terrorism.
Relationships between those couples affected by this are assumed to be more equal, and both parties can exercise violence. If a relationship is dominated by conflict and such violence occurs frequently, this may cause one or both parties to suffer mental and physical injury Johnson , p.
In his later work, Johnson introduced the concepts of mutual violent control and violent resistance Johnson and Ferraro ; Johnson Violent resistance denotes physical violence that is exercised when the victim of intimate terrorism uses physical violence in situations as a form of self-defence.
We find that neither mutual violence nor violent resistance is particularly relevant to our material. On the contrary, the men we have interviewed tell us that they are proud of not having reacted to violence with violence. In some situations, the men held the women back, grasped them or even laid them on the ground to avoid being exposed to violence themselves. In such instances, men use their physical superiority to defend themselves, but this could not be seen as violent resistance.
Our research is thus a contribution to the understanding of the intimate terrorism to which men are exposed. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Violence Against Men in Intimate Relationships. Open Access. First Online: 05 January Download chapter PDF. Aims and Objectives This book is dived into three sections: a summary of prevalence studies; a survey; and qualitative research interviews.
The questions that form the basis of this study are as follows: What do prevalence studies from the Nordic countries tell us about the vulnerability of men, the characteristics of the violence, the relationships in which violence takes place, its consequences and the help available? What kinds of help do these men require?
Is there public awareness of the help available to men? Allen-Collinson, J. CrossRef Google Scholar. Qualitative Sociology Review, 5 1 , 50— Google Scholar. Archer, J. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7 4 , —
Male Victims of Domestic Violence
Domestic violence against men isn't always easy to identify, but it can be a serious threat. Know how to recognize if you're being abused — and how to get help. Women aren't the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, and know how to get help. Domestic violence — also known as intimate partner violence — occurs between people who are or have been in a close relationship.
While domestic, sexual and gender-based violence have recently emerged as an increasingly important topics both in Ireland and in the international community, they have been framed principally with respect to violence against women, particularly sexual violence. These abuses were portrayed simply as cases of male perpetrators and female victims. However, it is now widely accepted in Ireland that both men and women can be victims and perpetrators of violence in the home. Considerable progress has also been made in the area of research over the past number of years.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Papers People. Previous studies on gender imbalance have focused primarily on the Previous studies on gender imbalance have focused primarily on the factors precipitating the mass exodus of male teacher to other impressive jobs and little research has been undertaken to understand the implication of this imbalance on students achievement, attitude and behavior or male involvement in the prevention of this negative consequences. The discussions were transcribed and coded for the construction of a positional map on gender imbalance at schools and its negative consequences Social, economic and cultural changes have played a crucial role in transforming the role of men and women in our society. Three different positions of masculinity with certain beliefs on the gender order and acceptance of balance within our school were identified: the traditionalist, the pragmatist, and the egalitarian. The traditionalist had the highest acceptance as a tool to uphold the superior position of men within our school, while the pragmatist viewed balance as undesirable but sometimes needed.
Male victims of domestic abuse face significant barriers to getting help
About two in five of all victims of domestic violence are men, contradicting the widespread impression that it is almost always women who are left battered and bruised, a new report claims. Men assaulted by their partners are often ignored by police, see their attacker go free and have far fewer refuges to flee to than women, says a study by the men's rights campaign group Parity. The charity's analysis of statistics on domestic violence shows the number of men attacked by wives or girlfriends is much higher than thought. In men made up
Every case of domestic abuse should be taken seriously and each individual given access to the support they need. All victims should be able to access appropriate support. Whilst both men and women may experience incidents of inter-personal violence and abuse, women are considerably more likely to experience repeated and severe forms of abuse, including sexual violence. They are also more likely to have experienced sustained physical, psychological or emotional abuse, or violence which results in injury or death.
Statistics and Research
Men who experience domestic violence and abuse face significant barriers to getting help and access to specialist support services, our latest study shows. Although the amount, severity and impact of domestic violence and abuse experienced by women is much higher than that experienced by men, men can also suffer significantly as a result of abuse from a partner, ex-partner or an adult family member. An earlier study of 1, male patients in GP clinic waiting rooms in the UK found that more than one in four had experienced abusive behaviour from a partner or ex-partner. They were also between two and three times more likely to have symptoms of depression and anxiety.
This article explores these claims of gender symmetry in intimate partners' use of violence by reviewing the empirical foundations of the research and critiquing existing sources of data on domestic violence. The author suggests methods to reconcile the disparate data and encourages researchers and practitioners to acknowledge women's use of violence while understanding why it tends to be very different from violence by men toward their female partners. NRCDV gathered select resources that can offer helpful guidance for domestic violence programs in preparing for and responding to the coronavirus pandemic. Adequate self-care is vital to sustaining long-lasting careers as a victim advocates. In NRCDV's upcoming webinar, Vanessa Timmons will discuss strategies for managing work related stress and addressing the emotional and physical toll of compassion fatigue. The Vermont Network's Askable Adults campaign helps adults to be more "askable" for the children in their lives in order to support their resilience and healing.
Frequently asked questions
Press release issued: 12 June Men who experience domestic violence and abuse face significant barriers to getting help and access to specialist support services, according to a study by researchers at the University of Bristol's Centre for Academic Primary Care and Centre for Gender and Violence Research published in BMJ Open today [Wednesday 12 June]. The study, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, looked at what stops men in abusive relationships from seeking help and how services could be improved to make help-seeking easier. The researchers analysed interview-based studies of men in heterosexual and same-sex relationships and organised their findings into a series of themes. Fear of not being believed or being accused as the perpetrator, embarrassment at talking about the abuse, and feeling 'less of a man' were found to be key reasons why men did not seek help. Men also worried about the welfare of their partner, damaging their relationship or losing contact with their children if they opened up to someone outside their personal network of family and friends. Others lacked the confidence to seek help as a result of the abuse. The study also found that men were often either not aware of specialist support services or felt they were not appropriate for male victims of abuse.
When men and women are violent in heterosexual relationships, they usually engage in different patterns of behavior, for different reasons, and with different consequences. The following chart summarizes the approximate percentage of men and women who perpetrate different sorts of IPV, estimated by Johnson from prior research. No parallel thing happens to men, Stark says, even to men with abusive partners.
Men tend to worry they would not be believed, or that they would be perceived as less masculine if they reported abuse, their analysis found. Alyson Huntley and colleagues at the University of Bristol reviewed 12 previous studies of male victims of domestic abuse or violence. The studies, conducted between and , used data gathered mostly from interviews. In other cases, they were too depressed, despondent or traumatized to gather the strength to leave.
Men who experience domestic violence and abuse face significant barriers to getting help and access to specialist support services, according to a study by researchers at the University of Bristol's Centre for Academic Primary Care and Centre for Gender and Violence Research published in BMJ Open today [Wednesday 12 June]. The study, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, looked at what stops men in abusive relationships from seeking help and how services could be improved to make help-seeking easier. The researchers analysed interview-based studies of men in heterosexual and same-sex relationships and organised their findings into a series of themes.