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Before we commence, I must make this special warning that the materials contained in this lesson tape and disc must never be copied, reproduced, retrieved, transferred, or re-written in any manner without the written approval and consent of the Guosa Language Research Center, P. Edo Language English Language. It is fine, o. Next in Lesson One, we shall study a little bit of the Edo language grammar as folllows:.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: (OSASU & OSATO IN LONDON PART 1) LATEST BENIN MOVIES 2020
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Substantial proportions of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV-2 infection hence the magnitude of infection in the population suggests the expected course of HIV epidemic.
We determined prevalence of genital herpes as a result of HSV-2 and its associated factors among pregnant women in Nigeria. Prevalence of genital herpes was HSV-2 was associated with first time pregnancy, high maternal age and age of sex partner in this study.
Treatment of HSV-2 in populations like pregnant women would be among approaches towards preventing and managing HIV infections. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 HSV-2 infection is a sexually transmitted infection STI which is recognized as the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide [ 1 , 2 ]. Most of the people infected are unaware in spite of symptoms [ 3 ]. HSV-2 infection is a growing global problem with high prevalence in women in developing countries, especially those with human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection [ 4 ].
Studies show that STIs like HSV-2 increases the probability of someone acquiring HIV as well as enhances transmission by increasing susceptibility and infectiousness [ 5 ]. Herpes infection affects the genital mucosa causing increased multiplication of virus and high transmission rate in an HIV seropositive person [ 6 ].
The risk of contracting HIV is higher with acute HSV-2 than chronic ones and most people infected are unaware despite the symptoms [ 7 ]. Mbizvo, et al. HSV-2 is implicated as co-factor in HIV acquisition and transmission, which may contribute greatly to HIV infections by facilitating its spread among the low-risk population within a stable sexual relationship [ 13 ].
A study conducted in four cities of Africa revealed that among two West African cities with low HSV-2 prevalence, HIV was observed to be constant in the high-risk group of individuals [ 13 ].
However, among cities with high herpes simplex prevalence, HIV transmission was observed in a larger fraction of the population [ 14 ].
Pregnancy is an evidence of unprotected sexual intercourse; hence pregnant women are the most appropriate target population for studying and identifying factors regarding sexual behaviour and STIs. Some women acquire HSV-2 infection during pregnancy, where the infection is acquired close to term there is a high risk of transmitting the virus from the lower genitalia to the baby during vaginal delivery.
Complications from disseminated disease and visceral organ involvement in neonates are becoming less severe with the use of antiviral therapy. Encephalitis is usually a common aspect of these disseminated disease as well as the presence of a vesicular rash. Death which rarely occurs is in connection to severe coagulopathy, liver dysfunction, and pulmonary involvement of the disease [ 15 - 18 ]. The main objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of genital herpes and its associated factors among pregnant women in two communities in Nigeria that have a low but increasing HIV prevalence.
Between April and July , a total of pregnant women between 18 and 49 years regardless of gestational age period attending antenatal clinics ANC at the Plateau State Specialist Hospital and the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were enrolled into the study after giving written informed consent to participate.
The study protocol was approved by the University of Maryland Baltimore Institutional Review Board and the ethics review committees at the local hospitals. A standard structured questionnaire was administered to all participants. At baseline, information on socio- demographic characteristics like age, religion, educational qualification etc were obtained. Obstetric history like date of last menstrual period and previous obstetric history were obtained.
Other clinical history and signs and symptoms associated with genito-pelvic infections were obtained from all the participants at the antenatal clinic both at baseline and all subsequent follow-up visits. Pre and post-test HIV counselling were provided to all the participants. An aliquot of the Plasma was used for the HIV testing at enrolment visit. Medford, N. The women that were confirmed HIV positive were called back during their next antenatal care visit and had their blood drawn for CD4 cells count.
The stored serum samples from the date of enrolment were identified for the cohort study, approximately 10ul of this stored serum was used for the HSV-2 testing. This assay showed a sensitivity ranging from Sera with optical density less than 0. Results between these values, that were between 0. Of the total samples analysed, 22 0. Analysis of data was done using SAS software version 9. HSV-2 sero-prevalence was calculated for the women.
Difference in mean was measured using T-test. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to test for statistically significant associations. Variables with P The mean age of the study population was The prevalence of HSV-2 sero-positivity was Majority of the women in our study population About twenty percent View Table 1.
The prevalence of HSV-2 sero-positivity gradually significantly rose with increase in maternal age. HSV-2 sero-prevalence was also higher among women who were booked and enrolled in the study before 18 weeks gestation compared to women booked and enrolled at 32 weeks gestation and above The prevalence of HSV-2 did not vary with douching practices.
The prevalence of genital ulcerative disease GUD was Close to two - third With every 5 years increase in age of the mothers, the risk for HSV-2 went up by 1. Table 2: Multivariate analysis of risk factors -All women. View Table 2. View Table 3. HSV-2 sero-prevalence was View Figure 1. The prevalence of HSV-2 sero-positivity in this study was Predisposing factors like age has been shown to be associated with the acquisition of the HVS-2 virus [ 23 , 24 ], in our study those above 35 years of age had the highest prevalence for sero-positivity, which is similar to what was reported in the Kenyan AIDS indicator survey [ 9 ].
Glynn, et al. The trend of a higher prevalence of HSV-2 infection with increasing age is substantiated by similar reports from Lagos, Nigeria [ 12 ] and Sweden [ 21 ] which also suggested that increasing partner age was a possible risk factor for HSV-2 infection.
Also, HSV-2 infection is a lifelong infection with a high rate of transmission [ 27 ]. This is because age difference between women and their husbands remained a silent driver of the HIV epidemic as the older men have more exposure than the young women resulting in disproportionate prevalence of STI between men and women.
From our study, the HIV sero-positivity is A similar finding was shown by Eis-Hubinger, et al. Meanwhile Positive HIV status was the strongest independent predictor of HSV-2 sero-positivity as similarly reported in other studies [ 17 , 28 ].
HIV infection increases the risk of acquisition of HSV-2, the frequency and severity and reactivation [ 29 , 30 ]. If these women acquire HSV-2 infection late in pregnancy their risk of transmitting the virus to infant intra-partum is high [ 33 ]. The low prevalence of HSV-2 in our study compare to other African studies can be justified by the widespread public awareness in Nigeria in the last few years on practice of safe sex to fight the HIV epidemic in the country.
The general GUD prevalence in this study was In that study, the frequency of genital ulcer disease consistent with reactivation of HSV-2 was found to increase in a stepwise fashion with a declining CD4 count [ 34 ].
In a similar study done in Surat and Delhi it was also observed that higher HSV-2 sero-prevalence in subjects with GUD, vaginal discharge and low backache [ 1 ].
Most women in our study In Dipankar Biswas study, it was shown that subjects with multiple sex partners had significantly higher HSV-2 sero-prevalence compared to single sex partner [ 37 ].
Limitations in our analysis include the challenges of identifying prior GUD, due to symptoms of varying severity. Women many not have recalled prior GUD at study entry. As this was a cross-sectional design, incident ulcers were not systematically assessed, therefore were not included in our analysis. Nonetheless, our results highlights the potential public health impact of HSV-2 in Nigeria where HSV-2 testing is not performed routinely for ANC attendees considering the risk of neonatal transmission and the attendant complications at birth as well as the synergy between HIV and HSV-2 transmission.
It has been shown that the rate of reactivation of HSV-2 in labour was found to be Therefore, there is urgent need to recognise HSV-2 infection among the population at risk, especially identification of new HSV-2 infection in pregnancy may indirectly impact on mother-to-child transmission of HIV, especially in Africa where HSV-2 infection affects most HIV Sero-positive pregnant women [ 22 ]. Priority should be given to the development of Rapid HSV-2 specific tests.
The diagnosis and management of genital herpes presents a challenge for public health programmes and for clinicians in developing countries, therefore the approach needed may differ between areas depending on the stage of HIV epidemic, the prevalence HSV-2 in high risk population, and the cost and availability of diagnostic tests and treatment.
This work was supported by funding from the U. We declare no conflict of interest; there was no undue influence to the objectivity of this paper. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper. Results Prevalence of genital herpes was
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It is one of the oldest and most prestigious colleges in Delta State and Nigeria, having produced many notable figures in the Nigerian professional and political scenery. The school has literally raised several generations of Nigerians from all tribes and backgrounds and schooled them in the best tradition of scholarship, athleticism, citizenship and morality. It became a mixed secondary school — boys and girls — coeducation in when the first set of girls were admitted. It became pertinent and urgent for the need of a secondary to be sited in Warri to fill in the vacuum.
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Organisers order rematch between Lagos and Ondo Ondo State Governor, Dr Olusegun Mimiko yesterday denied reports in some sections of the media that he nominated a member of the PDP to President Goodluck for consideration as Minister even as he pleaded that he be left out of issues pertaining to the PDP. Mimiko was quoted as having nominated one Mrs. Omobola Olubusola Johnson for the President to be considered as Minister.
Though there is archaeological evidence that societies have been living in Nigeria for more than twenty-five hundred years, the borders of modern Nigeria were not created until the British consolidated their colonial power over the area in The name Nigeria was suggested by British journalist Flora Shaw in the s. She referred to the area as Nigeria, after the Niger River, which dominates much of the country's landscape. The word niger is Latin for black. More than ethnic tribes call present-day Nigeria home. The three largest and most dominant ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo pronounced ee-bo.
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Follow us on Instagram for endless scrolling enjoyment! In , Gift was impregnated by her biological father, who forced her to have an abortion before impregnating her again in Sadly, on the morning of the court sitting, Gift, her uncle, the advocacy officers in charge of her case and others died in a motor accident. Magdalene Ohenhen said that it is becoming normal for Edo men to sleep with their daughters while noting the case of another man who slept with his own daughter for over 10 years before it was reported. Edo State is becoming something else, and the earlier we stop it, the better for us.
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Those who fail to pay are frequently threatened with arrest and physical harm. Far too often these threats are carried out. In the shadows, high-level police officials embezzle staggering sums of public funds meant to cover basic police operations.